Project Description

Growing Happy, Healthy Young Minds

Edited by Dr Ramesh Manocha & Gyongyi Horvath
To read the full chapter go to Volume 1, chapter 16, pp. 233-249.


Dr Scott Griffiths,

Melbourne University. 

Dr Scott Griffiths is a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Research Fellow at the University of Melbourne. His research has attracted multiple awards and distinctions, including from the Australian Academy of Science, the Society for Mental Health Research, the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Eating Disorders, the North American Academy of Eating Disorders, and the University of Sydney.


This chapter provides an overview of muscle dysmorphia in adolescence. Readers will gain an understanding of what muscle dysmorphia is, how to recognise it, and what to do for support.

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The Butterfly Foundation:

The National Association for Males with Eating Disorders: 

Cafri, G, Olivardia, R & Thompson, JK 2008, ‘Symptom characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity among males with muscle dysmorphia’, Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 4, pp 374–379.

Hitzeroth, V, Wessels, C, Zungu Dirwayi, N, Oosthuizen, P & Stein, DJ 2001, ‘Muscle dysmorphia: A South African sample’, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 55, pp 521–523.

Olivardia, R, Pope, HG & Hudson, J 2000, ‘Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: A case-control study’, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 8, pp 1291–1296.

Pope, HG Jnr, Phillips, KA, Olivardio, R 2002, The Adonis Complex, Simon & Schuster, New York.

1. Cafri, G., Olivarida, R. & Thompson, J., ‘Symptom Characteristics and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Males With Muscle Dysmorphia’, Compr Psychiatry, 49, 2008, pp. 374–379.; Hitzeroth et al., 2001; Olivardia et al., 2000.

2. Olivardia R., Pope H.G., Jr, & Hudson J.I., ‘Muscle dysmorphia’ in male weightlifters: A case-control study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 2000, pp. 1291–1296

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